In their hatred to the Holy Catholic Church, many Sabbatarians have accused the Church of Rome for changing the Sabbath day from Saturday to Sunday. They traced their claim from the civil decree of Emperor Constantine I on March 7, A.D. 321 making Sunday a day of rest from labor, stating:
“All judges and city people and the craftsmen shall rest upon the venerable day of the sun. Country people, however, may freely attend to the cultivation of the fields, because it frequently happens that no other days are better adapted for planting the grain in the furrows or the vines in trenches. So that the advantage given by heavenly providence may not for the occasion of a short time perish.”
ON THE other hand, the heretics also hooked the change up back to the decree of the Ecumenical Council of Laodicea in A.D. 364 encouraging Christians to make use of the day for Christian rest where possible, without ascribing to it any of the regulation of Mosaic Law, and indeed, anathematizing Hebrew observance on the Sabbath, stating:
“Christians should not Judaize and should not be idle on the Sabbath, but should work on that day; they should, however, particularly reverence the Lord’s day and, if possible, not work on it, because they were Christians” (Canon 29).
FURTHERMORE, in her books A Word To The Little Flock and Early Writings, Ellen G. White, the foundress of the Seventh Day Adventists’ sect, taught that the bishop of Rome changed the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday, as quoted:
“I saw that the Sabbath commandment was not nailed to the cross. If it was, the other nine commandments were; and we are at liberty to break them all, as well as to break the fourth. I saw that God had not changed the Sabbath, for He never changes. But the pope had changed it from the seventh to the first day of the week; for he was to change times and laws [Daniel 7:25]” (A word to the Little Flock, p.18, par.3; and Early Writings, p.32, par.3).
HOWEVER, did Constantine really change the Sabbath even though he only issued a civil law rather than a religious principle? Did the Laodicean Council really change the Sabbath despite the fact that its observance was no longer in effect in the earliest years of Christianity? If the pope changed the Sabbath, who could be that pope who did it?
Below are the testimonies of the early witnesses of faith proving the observance of Sunday as the day of worship for Christians:
The Twelve Apostles
“But every Lord’s day . . . gather yourselves together and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned” (Didache 14 [A.D. 70]).
“We keep the eighth day [Sunday] with joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose again from the dead” (Letter of Barnabas 15:6–8 [A.D. 74]).
Ignatius, bishop of Antioch
“[T]hose who were brought up in the ancient order of things [i.e. Jews] have come to the possession of a new hope, no longer observing the Sabbath, but living in the observance of the Lord’s day, on which also our life has sprung up again by him and by his death” (Letter to the Magnesians 8 [A.D. 110]).
Justin Martyr, apologist
“[W]e too would observe the fleshly circumcision, and the Sabbaths, and in short all the feasts, if we did not know for what reason they were enjoined [on] you—namely, on account of your transgressions and the hardness of your heart. . . . [H]ow is it, Trypho, that we would not observe those rites which do not harm us—I speak of fleshly circumcision and Sabbaths and feasts? . . . God enjoined you to keep the Sabbath, and imposed on you other precepts for a sign, as I have already said, on account of your unrighteousness and that of your fathers . . .” (Dialogue with Trypho the Jew 18, 21 [A.D. 155]).
“But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Savior on the same day rose from the dead” (First Apology 67 [A.D. 155]).
“[L]et him who contends that the Sabbath is still to be observed as a balm of salvation, and circumcision on the eighth day . . . teach us that, for the time past, righteous men kept the Sabbath or practiced circumcision, and were thus rendered ‘friends of God.’ For if circumcision purges a man, since God made Adam uncircumcised, why did he not circumcise him, even after his sinning, if circumcision purges? . . . Therefore, since God originated Adam uncircumcised and unobservant of the Sabbath, consequently his offspring also, Abel, offering him sacrifices, uncircumcised and unobservant of the Sabbath, was by him [God] commended [Gen. 4:1–7, Heb. 11:4]. . . . Noah also, uncircumcised—yes, and unobservant of the Sabbath—God freed from the deluge. For Enoch too, most righteous man, uncircumcised and unobservant of the Sabbath, he translated from this world, who did not first taste death in order that, being a candidate for eternal life, he might show us that we also may, without the burden of the law of Moses, please God” (An Answer to the Jews 2 [A.D. 203]).
“We solemnize the day after Saturday in contradiction to those who call this day their Sabbath” (Apology, Chapter XVI [A.D. 203]).
Didascalia Apostolorum, a Christian treatise
“The apostles further appointed: On the first day of the week let there be service, and the reading of the holy scriptures, and the oblation [sacrifice of the Mass], because on the first day of the week [i.e., Sunday] our Lord rose from the place of the dead, and on the first day of the week he arose upon the world, and on the first day of the week he ascended up to heaven, and on the first day of the week he will appear at last with the angels of heaven” (Didascalia 2 [A.D. 225]).
“Hence it is not possible that the [day of] rest after the Sabbath should have come into existence from the seventh [day] of our God. On the contrary, it is our Savior who, after the pattern of his own rest, caused us to be made in the likeness of his death, and hence also of his resurrection” (Commentary on John 2:28 [A.D. 229]).
Anatolius, bishop of Laodicea
“Our regard for the Lord’s resurrection which took place on the Lord’s Day will lead us to celebrate it” (Chapter X [A.D. 270]).
Victorinus, bishop of Poetovio
“The sixth day [Friday] is called parasceve, that is to say, the preparation of the kingdom. . . . On this day also, on account of the passion of the Lord Jesus Christ, we make either a station to God or a fast. On the seventh day he rested from all his works, and blessed it, and sanctified it. On the former day we are accustomed to fast rigorously, that on the Lord’s day we may go forth to our bread with giving of thanks. And let the parasceve become a rigorous fast, lest we should appear to observe any Sabbath with the Jews . . . which Sabbath he [Christ] in his body abolished” (The Creation of the World [A.D. 300]).
Peter, bishop of Alexandria
“But the Lord’s Day we celebrate as a day of joy, because on it, he rose again” (Canon 15 [A.D. 306]).
Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea
“They [the early saints of the Old Testament] did not care about circumcision of the body, neither do we [Christians]. They did not care about observing Sabbaths, nor do we. They did not avoid certain kinds of food, neither did they regard the other distinctions which Moses first delivered to their posterity to be observed as symbols; nor do Christians of the present day do such things” (Church History 1:4:8 [A.D. 312]).
“[T]he day of his [Christ’s] light . . . was the day of his resurrection from the dead, which they say, as being the one and only truly holy day and the Lord’s day, is better than any number of days as we ordinarily understand them, and better than the days set apart by the Mosaic law for feasts, new moons, and Sabbaths, which the apostle [Paul] teaches are the shadow of days and not days in reality” (Proof of the Gospel 4:16:186 [A.D. 319]).
Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria
“The Sabbath was the end of the first creation, the Lord’s day was the beginning of the second, in which he renewed and restored the old in the same way as he prescribed that they should formerly observe the Sabbath as a memorial of the end of the first things, so we honor the Lord’s day as being the memorial of the new creation” (On Sabbath and Circumcision 3 [A.D. 345]).
Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem
“Fall not away either into the sect of the Samaritans or into Judaism, for Jesus Christ has henceforth ransomed you. Stand aloof from all observance of Sabbaths and from calling any indifferent meats common or unclean” (Catechetical Lectures 4:37 [A.D. 350]).
John Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople
“[W]hen he [God] said, ‘You shall not kill’ . . . he did not add, ‘because murder is a wicked thing.’ The reason was that conscience had taught this beforehand, and he speaks thus, as to those who know and understand the point. Wherefore when he speaks to us of another commandment, not known to us by the dictate of conscience, he not only prohibits, but adds the reason. When, for instance, he gave commandment concerning the Sabbath— ‘On the seventh day you shall do no work’—he subjoined also the reason for this cessation. What was this? ‘Because on the seventh day God rested from all his works which he had begun to make’ [Ex. 20:10-11]. . . . For what purpose then, I ask, did he add a reason respecting the Sabbath, but did no such thing in regard to murder? Because this commandment was not one of the leading ones. It was not one of those which were accurately defined of our conscience, but a kind of partial and temporary one, and for this reason it was abolished afterward. But those which are necessary and uphold our life are the following: ‘You shall not kill. . . . You shall not commit adultery. . . . You shall not steal.’ On this account he adds no reason in this case, nor enters into any instruction on the matter, but is content with the bare prohibition” (Homilies on the Statutes 12:9 [A.D. 387]).
“You have put on Christ, you have become a member of the Lord and been enrolled in the heavenly city, and you still grovel in the law [of Moses]? How is it possible for you to obtain the kingdom? Listen to Paul’s words, that the observance of the law overthrows the gospel, and learn, if you will, how this comes to pass, and tremble, and shun this pitfall. Why do you keep the Sabbath and fast with the Jews?” (Homilies on Galatians 2:17 [A.D. 395]).
“The rite of circumcision was venerable in the Jews’ account, forasmuch as the law itself gave way thereto, and the Sabbath was less esteemed than circumcision. For that circumcision might be performed, the Sabbath was broken; but that the Sabbath might be kept, circumcision was never broken; and mark, I pray, the dispensation of God. This is found to be even more solemn than the Sabbath, as not being omitted at certain times. When then it is done away, much more is the Sabbath” (Homilies on Philippians 10 [A.D. 402]).
Julian, bishop of Cicilia
“And on the day of our Lord’s resurrection, which is the Lord’s day, meet more diligently, sending praise to God that made the universe by Jesus, and sent him to us, and condescended to let him suffer, and raised him from the dead. Otherwise what apology will he make to God who does not assemble on that day . . . in which is performed the reading of the prophets, the preaching of the gospel, the oblation of the sacrifice, the gift of the holy food” (Apostolic Constitutions 2:7:60 [A.D. 400]).
Augustine, bishop of Hippo
“Well, now, I should like to be told what there is in these ten commandments, except the observance of the Sabbath, which ought not to be kept by a Christian. . . . Which of these commandments would anyone say that the Christian ought not to keep? It is possible to contend that it is not the law which was written on those two tables that the apostle [Paul] describes as ‘the letter that kills’ [2 Cor. 3:6], but the law of circumcision and the other sacred rites which are now abolished” (The Spirit and the Letter 24 [A.D. 412]).
Gregory I, bishop of Rome
“It has come to my ears that certain men of perverse spirit have sown among you some things that are wrong and opposed to the holy faith, so as to forbid any work being done on the Sabbath day. What else can I call these [men] but preachers of Antichrist, who when he comes will cause the Sabbath day as well as the Lord’s day to be kept free from all work. For because he [the Antichrist] pretends to die and rise again, he wishes the Lord’s day to be held in reverence; and because he compels the people to Judaize that he may bring back the outward rite of the law, and subject the perfidy of the Jews to himself, he wishes the Sabbath to be observed. For this which is said by the prophet, ‘You shall bring in no burden through your gates on the Sabbath day’ [Jer. 17:24] could be held to as long as it was lawful for the law to be observed according to the letter. But after that the grace of almighty God, our Lord Jesus Christ, has appeared, the commandments of the law which were spoken figuratively cannot be kept according to the letter. For if anyone says that this about the Sabbath is to be kept, he must needs say that carnal sacrifices are to be offered. He must say too that the commandment about the circumcision of the body is still to be retained. But let him hear the apostle Paul saying in opposition to him: ‘If you be circumcised, Christ will profit you nothing’ [Gal. 5:2]” (Letters 13:1 [A.D. 597]).
BY THE WAY, the anti-Catholics’ claim that it was Pope Sylvester I (d. A.D. 335) who transferred the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday based on the writings of Rabanus Maurus (A.D. 776-856), abbot of Fulda and later archbishop of Mainz, saying: “Pope Sylvester instructed the clergy to keep the feriae. And, indeed, from an old custom he called the first day [of the week] the Lord’s [day], on which the light was made in the beginning and also the resurrection of Christ is celebrated” has also been misinterpreted by the Sabbatarian proponents. In fact, Rabanus Maurus does not mean to say that Pope Sylvester was the first man who referred to the days of the week as feriaeor and who first started the observance of Sunday among Christians but just confirmed those practices and made them official insofar as the universal Church was concerned.
Despite the fact presented above, some more extreme Sabbatarian sects would further argue that Sunday is the pagan day of Sun worship and so what Catholics are doing on Sunday is absolutely participating in a pagan practice. But note that that every day of the week has also a reference to a pagan name. Taken from the writings of Rabanus Maurus who was also quoted by the Adventists, it reads:
“Pope Sylvester first among the Romans ordered that the names of the days [of the week], which they previously called after the name of their gods, that is, [the day] of the Sun, [the day] of the Moon, [the day] of Mars, [the day] of Mercury, [the day] of Jupiter, [the day] of Venus, [the day] of Saturn, they should call feriae thereafter, that is the first feria, the second feria, the third feria,the fourth feria, the fifth feria, the sixth feria, because that in the beginning of Genesis it is written that God said concerning each day: on the first, ‘Let there be light’; on the second, ‘Let there be a firmament’; on the third, ‘Let the earth bring forth verdure’; etc.”
SEE? Now, if that would be the case, could the heretics’ example of Sun worship be also applied to their beloved Saturday which is named after the Roman god Saturn? INDEED!
Finally, the Holy Catholic Church never changed or transferred the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday, not even by Constantine, Laodicean Council, or Pope Sylvester. The Church, from the time of the apostles up to the present, has preserved the Sacred Tradition being handed over to her. As what Pliny the Younger, governor of Bithynia in Asia Minor from A.D. 106-108, say about the Christians when he wrote to Trajan the Emperor:
“They were wont to meet together, on a stated day before it was light, and sing among themselves alternately a hymn to Christ as God … When these things were performed, it was their custom to separate and then to come together again to a meal which they ate in common without any disorder.”
NOTICE that on a stated day, the Christians gathered together to eat meal in common, i.e. the breaking of the bread. That day the early Church broke bread was Sunday according to the Holy Bible, as written: “Upon the first day of the week when the disciples came together to break bread” (Acts 20:7). On the other hand, the history speaks the same through Bardaisan (b. A.D. 154), a scientist, scholar, astrologer, philosopher and poet, in his work On Fate, it reads: “Wherever we are, we are all called after the one name of Christ, Christians. On one day, the first of the week, we assemble ourselves together.”
Even John Calvin, one of the leaders of Protestant Reformation, commented on the Early Church Fathers on the Sabbath/Lord’s Day Issue through his work Institutes of the Christian Religion:
“However, the ancients did not substitute the Lord’s Day (as we call it) for the Sabbath without careful discrimination. The purpose and fulfillment of that true rest, represented by the ancient Sabbath, lies in the Lord’s resurrection. Hence, by the very day that brought the shadows to an end, Christians are warned not to cling to the shadow rite.”
Consider what the author of the book of Ecclesiastes said: “That which has been is that which will be, and that which has been done is that which will be done. So there is nothing new under the sun. Is there anything of which one might say, ‘See this, it is new’? Already it has existed for ages which were before us” (1:9-10). The Christians’ celebration on the great day of the Lord, the first day of the week, Sunday, is indeed never new; but has already existed since earliest days of Christian faith. The Sabbatarians just do not understand. They are the new Ebionites, the children of those Ebionites who didn’t really know Christ and His Gospel.
The Sabbath commemorated a finished creation with rest. The first day commemorates a finished redemption and a new work.